Week 9 Intelligence Heuristics and Bias

Week 9 Intelligence Heuristics and Bias

PSY-101: Principles of Psychology

Chapter 8

Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence

COGNITION In other words, thinking

We organize our thinking by:

Building Concepts ● Mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people ● Allow us to organize complex things into simpler categories

Developing Prototypes ● Best example or representation of a concept ● E.g., Eagle may be my prototypical bird, not Ostrich

HOW DO WE SOLVE PROBLEMS? Three main approaches that use our concepts and prototypes:

● Trial and Error ○ Try different solutions until the is solved

● Algorithms ○ Applicable to formula/equation-type problems ○ If used the right way, guarantees correct solution ○ Time consuming but accurate

● Heuristics ○ General strategy that has been used in a similar situation ○ Saves time and energy, but can be entirely inaccurate


● You make a decision by focusing on a certain piece of information (an “anchor”) ● Keeps you from recognizing the importance and value of other information

Availability Heuristic ● You judge the probability of an event based upon how “available” memories of that

event are in your long-term memory ● Keeps you from recognizing actual statistical probabilities

Representativeness Heuristic ● You judge people, places, and behaviors based upon your existing

“representations” of those things in your concepts (this is STEREOTYPING!) ● Keeps you from recognizing that people, places, and behaviors are all unique and

may not fit some stereotype that you have

USEFUL HEURISTICS ● Work backwards

○ Focus on the end result first, and “work backward” from there ○ Can give us a new perspective on the solution

● Create subgoals ○ Break problem into a set of smaller steps ○ Large problems become more manageable as you work

through the smaller steps


● Tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use ● Lack creativity

Mental Sets ● Tendency for old patterns of to persist, even in the

face of repeated failure

Confirmation Bias ● Tendency to focus on, and search out, information that “confirms”

your existing beliefs ● Ignore information that contradicts your existing beliefs

INTELLIGENCE Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges

Two contemporary theories of intelligence:

● Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences ○ Breaks intelligence into (at least) eight different intelligences

● Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence ○ Breaks intelligence into three parts that relate to one’s success in

life, not just school




CREATIVITY Ability to generate or discover new ideas, , and possibilities

● A part of Sternberg’s theory of intelligence!

Divergent Thinking ● Process of arriving at multiple unique solutions to a

given problem ● Thinking “outside the box”

MEASURING INTELLIGENCE ● Traditionally done through an IQ (Intelligence Quotient) Test

○ Assumes intelligence is a singular factor though most contemporary psychologists agree that intelligence is multidimensional

○ Hyperfocus on Gardner’s logical-reasoning and linguistic intelligences and Sternberg’s analytical Intelligence

○ Culturally biased and discriminates against minority-group members whose experiences differ from the white majority

○ Still widely used in educational and clinical settings to identify those who may benefit from extra attention/help

THE SOURCE OF INTELLIGENCE As with pretty much EVERYTHING… it’s a result of a complex interaction between our Nature and Nurture

● We inherit a predisposition for a certain “level” of intelligence from our biological parents ○ NATURE

● This predisposition is either facilitated or inhibited as a result of our environmental experiences ○ NURTURE

Week 9 Intelligence Heuristics and Bias

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with CheapNursingWriter
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business Studies
Excellent service - thank you!
Customer 452469, February 20th, 2023
Job well done and completed in a timely fashioned!
Customer 452451, November 18th, 2022
Business Studies
Job well done. Finish paper faster than expected. Thank you!
Customer 452451, October 3rd, 2022
Public Administration
Excellent timely work
Customer 452451, April 19th, 2023
Excellent services will definitely come back
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Thanks a lot the paper was excellent
Customer 452453, October 26th, 2022
excellent loved the services
Customer 452443, September 23rd, 2022
The paper was EXCELLENT. Thank you
Customer 452449, September 23rd, 2022
English 101
Very good job. I actually got an A
Customer 452443, September 25th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you!
Customer 452451, November 27th, 2022
Architecture, Building and Planning
The assignment was well written and the paper was delivered on time. I really enjoyed your services.
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat