philosophy 2306 exam

I Plato (Exam I)

1. What do Socrates and the Sophists teach on virtue? Is Socrates against relativism? What is relativism and objective realism?

2. Name cardinal virtues by Plato. What is Justice?

3. Reconstruct all definitions of virtue given by Socrates and Meno.

4. What is the final definition of virtue in the Platonic dialogue Meno?

5. According to Plato, there is a difference between knowledge and opinion. What does create this difference? How is it connected with Plato’s ethical issues?

6. What is the major distinction between “a virtue” and “virtue”? Give some examples.

7. What is the “bee and swarm” analogy in Meno? What does Socrates try to explain using this analogy?

8. Explain the following terms: rationalism, ethics, virtue, rhetoric, intrinsic value, relativism, and aporia.

II Noddings

1. What type of ethics does Noddings represent?

2. What is the relationship between reason and emotions according to Noddings?

3. What is the “one-caring”?

4. What is the “care-for” attitude and its effects?

5. What is the ethics of being cared for?

6. What is the ethics of caring? (conclusions)

III Kant (Exam II)

1. Point out differences between deontology and consequential ethics.

2. Name differences between the categorical and hypothetical imperative by Kant.

3. Give at least two formulations of the categorical imperative by Kant.

4. How does Kant define freedom?

5. What does constitute moral worth according to for Kant?

6. Why is Kant’s good will always good? What does “volition” mean for Kant?

7. What is the Kingdom of Ends? Who belongs to the Kingdom of Ends?

8. What is a maxim? What is the universal moral law according to Kant?

IV Mill

1. What is the “Harm-to-Others Principle” by Mill?

2. Find differences between individuality and a uniform-oriented personality. What conditions are necessary to develop individuality?

3. What is a necessary connection among individuality, diversity, originality, development, and freedom?

4. How does Mill define liberty? How does he perceive human happiness?

5. What is virtue by Mill? What is the main function of reason and emotions in moral life?

6. What is liberalism and authoritarianism? What is Mill’s political tradition?

7. What forms of tyranny does Mill recognize in our social life?

8. What power does authority have upon the individual?

9. What is Mill’s idea of democracy?

V) Gandhi

1. Reconstruct the main ideas of satyagraha, swaraj, and sarvodaya by Gandhi.

2. What religious and philosophical influences are visible in Gandhi’s theory of non-violence? What is the Bhagavad-Gita?

3. Explain the following statement: “duties create rights.” What is Gandhi’s idea of democracy? Why does he criticize Western democracy?

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