Pathophysiology of Veins and Arteries Disorders
Pathophysiology of Veins and Arteries Disorders
Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis
Chronic Venus insufficiency (CVI) is a condition characterized by the inadequate return of venous over a long period of time. The condition results from venous hypertension, circulatory stasis, and tissue hypoxia which causes vessel and tissue reactions. This situation results in fibro-sclerotic modeling of the skin, a condition that develops into ulceration. On the other hand, Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that involves clotting of the blood in the veins which mainly occurs in the lower extremity. DVT is more common as compared to arterial thrombosis due to lower flow and pressure of the blood in the veins than in the arteries (Huether & McCance, 2015). The comparison of both chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis provides a clear pathophysiology interaction of the disorders which include their clinical presentation, diagnosis and prescription treatment as discussed herein.
Similarities and Differences
The clinical description of the Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is a disorder that causes impaired venous return with a high likelihood to cause lower extremity edema, changes in the skin, and discomfort. Chronic venous insufficiency is mainly caused by other disorders or conditions associated with venous hypertension. Such conditions involve injuries of the veins or incompetence of the venous valves which is mainly described as an example of deep venous thrombosis. A very common factor that leads to development CVI condition is the lack of valves within the deep perforated blood vessels due to damage over infections or injuries. They may, therefore, facilitate the blood to flux straight down the actual blood vessels to the outward deep superficial blood vessels through the contraction of leg muscle tissues.
On the other hand, Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) results from the damage of endothelial muscle of the leg. The factors contributing to the development of this condition include the presence of middle venous catheters, pacemakers, or effects of short medicine work. DVT is at times experienced in exceptional vena cove, switched vertical circuit, and even at the subclavian train of thought compression which sets up the thoracic wall socket. The compression forces occur from regular or even greater accessories of the first rib facilitating physical demanding supply action. DVT begins with the accelerated pumping of the blood by the leg muscle tissue pump. It may afterword result to second incompetence of the valves within or inside the perforating bleed vessels as well as the blood transmission to meet the demand of the deep superficial blood vessels.
Arterial thrombosis is a condition accelerated by the occurrence of plaques or during the time of high shear anxiety in a person leading to the development of platelet-rich white thrombin. Venous thrombosis usually occurs in the regions of the train of the thought wall which is undamaged leading to a condition known as venous thrombotic sickness. Blood circulation along the sheer anxiety is usually less which leads to the production of colored cell-rich red thrombin. The favored choice to stop arterial thrombosis include the anti-platelet therapies injected within the arteries. On the other hand, therapies for venous thrombosis involve the provision of anticoagulant within the damaged veins.
Selected Patient Factors and Prescribed Diagnosis and Treatment of the Disorders
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is a description of the advanced effects of long-standing venous dysfunction that affects the limb or leg muscles. The disorder as stated earlier is associated with edema, skin change, and active venous ulceration. The disorders are highly gendered sensitive with the women dominating in the rate of infection. Over 25 percent of women are affected by varicose veins while only about 15 percent of women suffer from the same disorder in United State. An estimation of about 3 percent in the European countries was detected to suffer from CVI (Zimbron, 2012). This data is prevalence comparable to the population suffering diabetic in the same region. On the other side, the reported incidents of Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) reported in Europe adds up between 1 to 6 percent per year. However, a conducted prospective study indicates that development of post-thrombotic syndrome that occurs after DVT affects about 17 percent of the population at the age of one year.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) diagnosis basically involves ultrasonography which requires a clear study of the Doppler flow. On the treatment, the patient is introduced to anticoagulation. This anticoagulation includes injectable heparin and prescription of oral anticoagulant. Diagnosis of the CVI disorder, on the other hand, involves clinical testing and ultrasonography. The two diagnosis helps in exclusion of DVT. The treatment of the disorder involves the elevation of the patient’s affected leg. The leg is then compressed using bandage, stocking, and pneumatic devices (Zimbron, 2012). The patient also requires typical wood care and surgery as per the severity of the condition. It has also been proven that conducting regular exercises, weight loss, and reduction of diet with excessive sodium are essential practices for patients suffering from bilateral chronic venous insufficiency (Huether & McCance, 2015).
Mind Map for the Disorders.
The mind map of the described the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of both chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis disorders (Koop, 2014).
Patients with chronic venous insufficient also suffer from edema of the foot and ankle as a result of reflux from the saphenofemoral junction at the top of the leg. The reflux extends to the smaller branches of the ankle and the foot. The disorder is common in women especially during pregnancy, individuals with diabetic and the aged population. The condition is clinically presented through venous stasis ulcers and treated by heparin therapy, limb elevation, and reduction of vein conservation and stripping. The disorder is managed by conducting physical exercises, regulating diet, avoid the use of drugs, and preventing overweight.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2015). Understanding Pathophysiology – Binder Ready. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Koop, H. (2014). Medical Therapy of Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, 103-111. doi:10.1007/3-211-32317-1_9
Zimbron J. (2012). Mind maps ”Dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Retrieved from http://www.medmaps.co.uk/beta/Gastro-oesophageal -reflux-disease