NURS 6512 MTSU Intermittent Headaches Neurological Case Study Discussion
A 20-year-old male complains of experiencing intermittent headaches. The headaches diffuse all over the head, but the greatest intensity and pressure occurs above the eyes and spreads through the nose, cheekbones, and jaw..
- Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient in the case study you were assigned.
- Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
- Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.
Use the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis, and justify why you selected each.
Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template Patient Information: Initials, Age, Sex, Race S. CC (chief complaint) a BRIEF statement identifying why the patient is here – in the patient’s own words – for instance “headache”, NOT “bad headache for 3 days”. HPI: This is the symptom analysis section of your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis. Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. Use LOCATES Mnemonic to complete your HPI. You need to start EVERY HPI with age, race, and gender (e.g., 34-year-old AA male). You must include the seven attributes of each principal symptom in paragraph form not a list. If the CC was “headache”, the LOCATES for the HPI might look like the following example: Location: head Onset: 3 days ago Character: pounding, pressure around the eyes and temples Associated signs and symptoms: nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia Timing: after being on the computer all day at work Exacerbating/ relieving factors: light bothers eyes, Aleve makes it tolerable but not completely better Severity: 7/10 pain scale Current Medications: include dosage, frequency, length of time used and reason for use; also include OTC or homeopathic products. Allergies: include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately (a description of what the allergy is ie angioedema, anaphylaxis, etc. This will help determine a true reaction vs intolerance). PMHx: include immunization status (note date of last tetanus for all adults), past major illnesses and surgeries. Depending on the CC, more info is sometimes needed Soc Hx: include occupation and major hobbies, family status, tobacco & alcohol use (previous © 2019 Walden University Page 1 of 3 and current use), any other pertinent data. Always add some health promo question here – such as whether they use seat belts all the time or whether they have working smoke detectors in the house, living environment, text/cell phone use while driving, and support system. Fam Hx: illnesses with possible predisposition, contagious or chronic illnesses. Reason for death of any deceased first degree relatives should be included. Include parents, grandparents, siblings, and children. Include grandchildren if pertinent. ROS: cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis You should list each system as follows: General: Head: EENT: etc. You should list these in bullet format and document the systems in order from head to toe. Example of Complete ROS: GENERAL: No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness or fatigue. HEENT: Eyes: No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose or sore throat. SKIN: No rash or itching. CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain, chest pressure or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema. RESPIRATORY: No shortness of breath, cough or sputum. GASTROINTESTINAL: No anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood. GENITOURINARY: Burning on urination. Pregnancy. Last menstrual period, MM/DD/YYYY. NEUROLOGICAL: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control. MUSCULOSKELETAL: No muscle, back pain, joint pain or stiffness. HEMATOLOGIC: No anemia, bleeding or bruising. LYMPHATICS: No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy. PSYCHIATRIC: No history of depression or anxiety. ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No reports of sweating, cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia. ALLERGIES: No history of asthma, hives, eczema or rhinitis. © 2019 Walden University Page 2 of 3 O.: From head-to-toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head to toe format i.e. General: Head: EENT: etc. Diagnostic results: Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines) A. Differential Diagnoses (list a minimum of 3 differential diagnoses).Your primary or presumptive diagnosis should be at the top of the list. For each diagnosis, provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines. P. This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses. References You are required to include at least three evidence based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced based guidelines which relates to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 6th edition formatting. © 2019 Walden University Page 3 of 3 Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Exemplar Focused SOAP Note for a patient with chest pain S. CC: “Chest pain” HPI: The patient is a 65 year old AA male who developed sudden onset of chest pain, which began early this morning. The pain is described as “crushing” and is rated nine out of 10 in terms of intensity. The pain is located in the middle of the chest and is accompanied by shortness of breath. The patient reports feeling nauseous. The patient tried an antacid with minimal relief of his . PMH: Positive history of GERD and hypertension is controlled FH: Mother died at 78 of breast cancer; Father at 75 of CVA. No history of premature cardiovascular disease in first degree relatives. SH : Negative for tobacco abuse, currently or previously; consumes moderate alcohol; married for 39 years ROS General–Negative for fevers, chills, fatigue Cardiovascular–Negative for orthopnea, PND, positive for intermittent lower extremity edema Gastrointestinal–Positive for nausea without vomiting; negative for diarrhea, abdominal pain Pulmonary–Positive for intermittent dyspnea on exertion, negative for cough or hemoptysis O. VS: BP 186/102; P 94; R 22; T 97.8; 02 96% Wt 235lbs; Ht 70” General–Pt appears diaphoretic and anxious Cardiovascular–PMI is in the 5th inter-costal space at the mid clavicular line. A grade 2/6 systolic decrescendo murmur is heard best at the second right inter-costal space which radiates to the neck. A third heard sound is heard at the apex. No fourth heart sound or rub are heard. No cyanosis, clubbing, noted, positive for bilateral 2+ LE edema is noted. Gastrointestinal–The abdomen is symmetrical without distention; bowel sounds are normal in quality and intensity in all areas; a bruit is heard in the right para-umbilical area. No masses or splenomegaly are noted. Positive for mid-epigastric tenderness with deep palpation. Pulmonary– Lungs are clear to auscultation and percussion bilaterally Diagnostic results: EKG, CXR, CK-MB (support with evidenced and guidelines) A. Differential Diagnosis: 1) Myocardial Infarction (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines). 2) Angina (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines). 3) Costochondritis (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines). Primary Diagnosis/Presumptive Diagnosis: Myocardial Infarction © 2019 Walden University Page 1 of 2 P. This section is not required for the in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses. © 2019 Walden University Page 2 of 2 …