Many theories are applied when it comes to trying to figure out why people commit crime. Several theories have been built upon to explain this phenomenon. There are social theories as well as psychological theories. What, if any of these theories apply to offenders who have been convicted and now released into the community? We investigate how the Classical theory as well as the strain theory may do so. According to Byrne, J., & Hummer, D. (2016). The idea that the solution to solving the crime problem is to have a strong structure of recognized social control is the Classical theory.
Classical criminology asserts that people break the law because the benefits outweigh the cost. The classical theorist believes that the system can make a difference, no matter how many individual and social problems exist. One of the most interesting elements of the classical theory is that those under community supervision should be meticulously managed in order to spot violations. What happens if there is a violation, is that much more time may be added to an offender’s supervision.
Byrne, J., & Hummer, D. (2016). The odds of detecting violation are about one in three. To achieve this level of monitoring, it is argued that hiring more community corrections personnel is needed to allow smaller caseloads (15 to 1) and multiple conditions of compliance monitoring. Legislative policy makers employ and misemploy criminological theories about why people commit crime. In turn these policies are also being applied and misapplied by community correction managers and community corrections officers. These policies are implemented in the workplace as they categorize, supervise, advice, and manage offenders placed on their caseloads. Byrne, J., & Hummer, D. (2016). Several programs have come into existence to improve the preventive capacity of the criminal justice system. Better police strategies have been employed to improve apprehension, significant prosecution and speedy trials as well as mandatory sentencing all to ensure severe, certain and greater punishment. Our institutions have been expanded to be able to hold more offenders including those who have been sentenced to mandatory minimums for drug related crimes. Programs to supervise those on probation and parole have also been developed and increased. Byrne, J., & Hummer, D. (2016). It must be taken into consideration that criminologists disagree about cause and solution to crime. There are several theories and any one of these theories or combination of, could apply to at least some of the offenders under correctional control. Intervention techniques need to be both crime and offender specific, if we expect correctional agencies to be effective in assisting a change in people. It is suspected that according to history, one group of theories will continue to dominate in the corrections field unless or until effective challenges are implemented to move these ideological and academic theories in a new progression. (Byrne and Hummer 2016). There is a link between criminological theory and community corrections strategy. Several observers have suggested that probation and parole officers do not have an adequate “professional base” to do the job we ask them to do. The question is, is there a clearly defined description of what their primary role is? Are they to emphasize treatment or control? If we can get to the bottom of why the offender committed the crime, then the plan of rehabilitation may be executed more precisely. There needs to be a firm understanding of what is to be expected from community correction officers in the areas of the education and skills needed to improve the future officer (Byrne and Hummer 2016). Strain Theory: The condition that results from a disorganized society and compels some people to seek economic gain by alternative methods, including crime (Harmening, W.M., Gamez, A.M. 2016). Strain theory assumes that some people are driven to crime out of the dissatisfaction related with living in lower-class communities. From a strain viewpoint a person initially tries to achieve “success” by suitable means. They ultimately realize that these acceptable avenues are not accessible in lower-class communities. This could include high unemployment rates, poor schools, lack of parenting as well as many other disadvantages. (Harmening, and Gamez 2016). When it comes to community supervision, the unfair treatment from parole officers should be considered as a source of strain for those who are under post release supervision. Whether probation is violated often depends on who is supervising the case. Many factors can contribute to unfair treatment of those on probation or parole. Different ethical beliefs of what the criminal justice goals are, how an individual interprets the law as well as personal partiality. There are instances where one offender commits an infraction and formal action is taken against them and in turn another offender may have no action brought against them. This type of unfair treatment may lead to discouragement in an offender and thus lead them to re-offend (Liu, Visher & O’Connell 2019). Community correction officers need to work with individuals in helping to secure an education and or employment from a strain theory prospective and act as an advocate for change in the community in these areas, not just monitor those they are supervising. Byrne, J., & Hummer, D. (2016).