Major Problems in African-American History

Major Problems in African-American History

Hmmm, Chickasaw don’t pay no woman no mind. Hmmm, Chickasaw don’t pay no woman no mind. And she stops, picking up men, all up and down the line.

Sgz E S S A Y Se Peter Gottlieb, archivist at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, lays out the struc­ tural factors that shaped the life African Americans might make in North or South in the first decades of the twentieth century, arguing that family and community resources were crucial in shaping the decisions that potential migrants made about relocation—and re-relocation. The second essay reminds us that although conditions within the United States generated this migration, it was part of a hemisphere-wide shift in labor demands and transportation networks. Irma Watkins-Owens, who teaches African-American studies and history at Fordham University, focuses on the forty thousand immigrants from the British West Indies who relocated to Harlem in the early twentieth century. She asks how they accommodated themselves to life in this new country and how their presence remade the black community in New York.

The Great Migration PETER GOTTLIEB

This essay is a contribution to the historical assessment of black migration. … In particular,… it is an attempt to place the Great Migration from 1916 to 1930 in the context of blacks’ northward movement from the 1870s to the 1970s. Drawing on the example of migration to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and its surrounding industrial region (Allegheny County), it examines the dynamics of blacks’ movement to northern cities as a way of understanding both the underlying conditions from which migration sprang as well as the distinctive character of the Great Migration.

Recent studies of African-American migration have demonstrated the mi­ grants’ creative role in their geographic movement. Unlike earlier investigations that primarily concerned the exterior facets of migration—the causes, destinations, numbers of migrants, and living conditions in origin and destination areas—the newer studies focus on the experience of geographic movement. Rather than ex­ plore only why and where southerners moved, this literature also reconstructs how they moved. It looks at the structures of group life and the values, attitudes, percep­ tions, and status that migrants brought to their movement. This view moves the forces that produce migration into the background and places the migrants them­ selves closer to the center of the geographic movement. Here the picture is not one of economic, political, or social conditions shuttling rural peoples from country to city. The emerging portrayal of African-American migration shows men and women responding to these conditions on the basis of deep-rooted social practices

Peter Gottlieb, “Rethinking the Great Migration: A Perspective from Pittsburgh,” in The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender, edited by Joe William Trotter, Jr., pp. 68-75, © 1991 by Indiana University Press. Reprinted with permission.

and caus

an ii culti duct Ami a m the Afri gati- mer that dyn tine

the in t mig

dist rapi sou den tan< nor mo the nev

Bk ind Wc poi em bet wo am nal the ne’ mt lea mt fre ins

Rural Exodus and the Growth of New Urban Communities 139

and customs, developing a pattern of movement which reflected both the general causes of migration and their own social organization and aspirations.

Approached in this way, African-Americans’ voluntary migration springs from an interplay between socioeconomic structures and the migrants’ community and culture. Migrants draw in particular ways on various resources to contend with in­ ducements stemming from socioeconomic structures. The way in which African- Americans engage their resources with the pressures on them to move creates a migration dynamic—the motive force behind their movement. From the end of the Civil War to the 1960s, the structures of southern agricultural backwardness, African-Americans’ lack of land, capital, and occupational skills, and racial segre­ gation and discrimination conditioned geographic mobility. But particular induce­ ments to migration changed over time, as did the material and cultural resources that African-Americans deployed in different ways to make their journeys. Thus the dynamic of northward migration shifted from one period to another, marking dis­ tinct phases in the 100-year flow of African-Americans out of their native region.

We can begin to explore the dynamics of northward migration by reviewing the genesis of blacks’ World War I movement to Pittsburgh, examining factors in both the South and the North that contributed to the particular energy of that migration….

We usually describe the Great Migration in terms of several characteristics that distinguished the movement during World War I and the 1920s. First, there was a rapid growth in the northward migration streams when hundreds of thousands of southern blacks began journeys to eastern and midwestem cities. Behind this sud­ den increase in the number of migrants were material and social forces that simul­ taneously encouraged blacks to leave their rural homes and attracted them to the northern destinations. Finally, two results of the wartime migration have seemed most salient: the entry of black migrants to industrial jobs previously closed to them; and the élan of the migrants themselves, which reflected an awareness of a new historical period beginning and their power to enter it on advantageous terms.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with CheapNursingWriter
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business Studies
Excellent service - thank you!
Customer 452469, February 20th, 2023
Job well done and completed in a timely fashioned!
Customer 452451, November 18th, 2022
Excellent services will definitely come back
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
excellent loved the services
Customer 452443, September 23rd, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you!
Customer 452451, November 27th, 2022
English 101
Very good job. I actually got an A
Customer 452443, September 25th, 2022
Architecture, Building and Planning
The assignment was well written and the paper was delivered on time. I really enjoyed your services.
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Thanks a lot the paper was excellent
Customer 452453, October 26th, 2022
The paper was EXCELLENT. Thank you
Customer 452449, September 23rd, 2022
Public Administration
Excellent timely work
Customer 452451, April 19th, 2023
Business Studies
Job well done. Finish paper faster than expected. Thank you!
Customer 452451, October 3rd, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat