Idiopathic Giant-Cell Myocarditis

Idiopathic Giant-Cell Myocarditis

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Idiopathic Giant-Cell Myocarditis
Idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis is a cardiovascular disorder that leads to inflammation of the heart muscles. Inflammation occurs due to the infiltration of giant cells related to inflammatory cells and heart muscle destruction (Nordenswan et al., 2021). The cause of the disease is unknown, although researchers that the disease occurs mainly among people with autoimmune diseases. Statistics indicate that 20 percent of the cases occur among people with autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease (Ekstrom et al., 2020).
People with idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis experience various symptoms such as swelling in the ankles, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and heart palpitations (Ekstrom et al., 2020). Patients experience irregular heartbeats, slow or fast, which leads to loss of consciousness and lightheadedness (Ekstrom et al., 2020). The symptoms generate life-threatening complications.
The rare disease affects males and females equally. The median age of patients is 42 years. Medical literature records approximately 300 cases (Nordenswan et al., 2021). There is n0 available data on the epidemiology of the disease in children. The condition mainly occurs among young adults (Nordenswan et al., 2021).
The diagnosis relies on medical procedures such as endomyocardial biopsy and histological examination (Nordenswan et al., 2021). A biopsy of the heart tissue is necessary to determine the cause of the symptoms. Other tests such as echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization are necessary to rule out possible conditions that can present similar symptoms (Ekstrom et al., 2020).
Treatment of the condition includes the insertion of a pacemaker and implantable heart defibrillator (Nordenswan et al., 2021). If the condition presents life-threatening conditions, a heart transplant is necessary to alleviate the risk of death and improve quality of life. Researchers are currently investigating the use of immunosuppression drugs to reduce the disease’s risk (Ekstrom et al., 2020). The immunosuppression drugs combined with steroids can be essential combinations for the treatment of the disease.

Ekstrom, K., Räisänen‐Sokolowski, A., Lehtonen, J., Nordenswan, H. K., Mäyränpää, M. I., & Kupari, M. (2020). Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis? A retrospective audit of a nationwide case series. ESC Heart Failure, 7(3), 1362-1370.
Agdamag, Arianne Clare C., et al. “Fulminant Myocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report.” European Heart Journal-Case Reports (2022).
Nordenswan, H. K., Lehtonen, J., Ekström, K., Räisänen‐Sokolowski, A., Mäyränpää, M. I., Vihinen, T., … & Kupari, M. (2021). Manifestations and outcome of cardiac sarcoidosis and idiopathic giant cell myocarditis by 25‐year nationwide cohorts. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(6), 019415.

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