Exercise 2.2: Why Is the World Full of Large Females?

Exercise 2.2: Why Is the World Full of Large Females?

Real World: Females incline to be larger than males in majority of species

Model: Females have larger body due to the significance of reproduction and offering protection immature ones

Prediction: Females have larger bodies so as to protect the young one

Data: Examining varied lizard species, Shrine examined the size of clutch of females and males to observe the disparities, but that was not only aspect that was different.

Negative Evidence: Yes, since the data and the prediction disagree

Positive Evidence: No, since there were numerous varied aspects that can validate the female larger or the male larger.

Exercise 2.3: Prions

Real World: Biologists are investigating whether protein alone in infectious agent can harm the victim or whether the agent must have DNA or RNA

Model: In mid-1970s, biologists believed that infectious agents must have genetic material made of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) to multiply in their victims.

Prediction: Outbreak of Mad-cow disease in Great Britain which was believed to be caused by sheep, their disease scapie as ground-up sheep heads were found in commercial feeds for cows.

Data: Using extracts from the brain of scrapie victims containing protein alone, which were subjected to ionizing radiation and injected into brain of normal animal. The irradiated extracts produced scrapie. Other researchers used similar extracts without proteins and injected them to a normal animal, and they established that the treated extracts had reduced ability to cause scrapie.

Negative Evidence: Yes, the ionized extracts caused scrapie in healthy animals

Positive Evidence: Not clear as the treated extracts just reduced their ability to produce scrapie

Exercise 2.4: Identifying the Scrapie Prion

Real World: Determining why PrP can cause a disease to some animals while it’s harmless to others

Model: Isolating particular protein that cause scarpie (PrP)

Prediction: Prusiner recommended that there might be two kinds of PrP, one common and harmless, the other rare and deadly

Data: Isolated specific genes liable for production of PrP, discovering that victims of scarpie and allied illnesses had a slightly mutated version of the gene that produces normal PrP. Some produced low levels of the deadly PrP while others produced highly levels of the deadly version. Mice was used and it was discovered that mice with high level of deadly Prp die of disease similar to scarpie while those with low levels die of remain healthy.

Negative Evidence: No, since it was established PrP is produced naturally in many ways

Positive Evidence: Yes, it was confirmed that PrP appears in two forms, one common and harmless and the other rare and deadly. Mice with low level of scarpie remain healthy.

Exercise 2.5: HIV versus the Human Immune System

Real World: HIV regularly manages to defeat the immune system of the victim

Model: Virus population evolves in the surrounding in the immune system.

Prediction: Mutated viruses would get observable to those agents till they themselves gets adequately abundant to stimulate production of fresh immune system agents

Data: It is probable to obtain the genetic changeability of the virus population

Negative Evidence: No, since the data and the forecast disagree

Positive Evidence: Yes, the data and the forecast agree since they validated the way HIV takes over

Exercise 2.6: A Heresy in Evolutionary Biology

Real World: investigating some facts of evolutionary biology specifically the generation of gene mutations

Model: Natural selection is dual process

Prediction: There is generation of genetic mutations followed by the fixation of variants genes uninfluenced by external factors

Data: Using Escharicin cali incapable of metabolizing lactose and exposing them to the sugar

Positive Evidence: Yes, populations of bacteria have some way of producing

Negative Evidence: not clear

Exercise 2.7: Discovery Supports Theory That Meteor Caused Dinosaur Extinction

Real World: Determining reason behind extinction of dinosaur

Model: Noble Prize-winning model

Prediction: The falling of giant meteorite or comet slammed into the earth with the energy of a billion atomic bombs, which killed all dinosaurs in the world.

Data: Use of radio telescopes to measure density of observable galaxies

Positive Evidence: No, density of different galaxies differs indicating that the shock wave around different parts of the world cannot be the same

Negative Evidence: Yes, prediction and data disagree; the density is measured to decrease and cannot be the same everywhere

Exercise 2.8: The Expanding Universe

Real World: The world is expanding, since all of the galaxies are distancing from each other

Model: Steady state model; matter is formed and then moves externally. The explosion model; everything is strong and then moves externally

Prediction: Density of matter should be equal everywhere and density of the most far-away galaxies should be minimal if the explosion model is accurate

Data: There is an apparent reduction in the density of the most far-away visible galaxies

Positive Evidence: Explosion model, since the data has verified that the density is redistributed

Negative Evidence: Steady state since the density is not equally the same

Exercise 2.9: New Observation Reveal Cosmic Mystery

Real World: Determining what keeps stars together in the galaxy

Model: Milky Way model; the solar system and sun are one-third away from the edge of the galaxy. The standard model; that the starts are kept together by force of gravity model

Prediction: Galaxy has millions of stars with most near the middle and fewer out toward the edges

Data: Sharpening images produced by large telescope by use of computers

Positive Evidence: Milky Way Model-stars at the outer edge move faster than starts at the center

Negative Evidence: Standard Model-the difference in speed between stars at the center and at the edge makes it hard for force of gravity to hold galaxy together

Exercise 2.10: Scientist Put a New Twist on Creation of the Universe

Real World: Astronomers are carrying out a survey of radio sources and have found an object in the Leo constellation

Model: Einstein’s theory articulates that gravitational lensing would occur when waves or light pass something in the center forming rings.

Prediction: An image can only create a whole ring if a source and the lensing object are accurately matched with the earth

Data: Radio source of miniature elliptical of approximately two arch seconds across has occurred.

Positive Evidence: Yes, the prediction and the data agree with each other since a ring was created and they have precluded any other likelihood.

Negative Evidence: No, the prediction and the data agree

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with CheapNursingWriter
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Job well done and completed in a timely fashioned!
Customer 452451, November 18th, 2022
excellent loved the services
Customer 452443, September 23rd, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you!
Customer 452451, November 27th, 2022
Business Studies
Job well done. Finish paper faster than expected. Thank you!
Customer 452451, October 3rd, 2022
The paper was EXCELLENT. Thank you
Customer 452449, September 23rd, 2022
Thanks a lot the paper was excellent
Customer 452453, October 26th, 2022
Architecture, Building and Planning
The assignment was well written and the paper was delivered on time. I really enjoyed your services.
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Public Administration
Excellent timely work
Customer 452451, April 19th, 2023
Business Studies
Excellent service - thank you!
Customer 452469, February 20th, 2023
English 101
Very good job. I actually got an A
Customer 452443, September 25th, 2022
Excellent services will definitely come back
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat