Competing Ethnic Mexican Worldviews in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, 1920-1970


Student’s Name
Theme: Competing Ethnic Mexican Worldviews in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, 1920-1970

During the twentieth century several important economic and political shifts in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands caused ethnic Mexicans (Mexican nationals and U.S.-Mexicans) to rethink their position in the region, nation, and world. Between the Mexican Revolution of 1910 and the Chicano Movement in the long decade of the 1960s, Mexican nationals and U.S.-Mexicans used cultural productions to articulate their sense of belonging. There were three competing worldviews during this time. Two of these were sponsored by centralizing states. The U.S. state and Mexican state were interested in securing the political and cultural allegiances of this transnational community. The other tried to articulate a sense of belonging outside of authoritative nationalisms.

  1. Flaco Jimenez – “La Piedrera” (1928)

Flaco Jimenez was an accordion player from San Antonio who popularized a regionally specific genre of music, the Texas-Mexican Conjunto. The conjunto paired the European accordion with the guitar and bass. This music became popular among the growing working-class ethnic Mexican population in the early twentieth century. Regardless of citizenship, both groups identified with the music, using it to establish political connections and establish community. This type of music helped bridge cultural chasms that were emerging among the community by the 1920s. Increased migration from Mexico had augmented the numbers of Mexican nationals and there was an intra-community debate surrounding the construction of “Mexicanness” in the U.S.

  1. Lalo Guerrero – “Los Chucos Suaves” (1942)

Guerrero was born in Tucson, Arizona but eventually found his way to Los Angeles, California. Once there, Guerrero, in addition to musician Don Tosti, helped popularize the “Pachuco Boogie Woogie.” By the 1940s, Mexican-American nativity had dramatically increased since its nadir in the 1920s. These youths were born in the U.S. and attended American schools. They were bilingual and bicultural. The song “Los Chucos Suaves” exemplifies the cultural changes of the Pachucas and Pachucos. The song does not have an accordion and it is not a traditional Latin American format. Instead, the song is inspired by American jazz, yet still retains a Latino flair. The maracas, the bass line, and the use of Caló, or the Pachuco slang illustrate the cultural fluidity of these Mexican-American youths who see themselves as both American and Mexican, but not solely one. The lyrics stress the bicultural reality of Mexican-American youth in the 1940s by stating Pachucas and Pachucos can dance a wide variety of dances—cumbia, rhumba, guarache—but also the boogie-woogie and jitter-bug.

  1. Beto Villa – “El Primero” (1948)

Villa’s band was emblematic of a new genre of music that began to develop in the Southwest in the middle of the twentieth century, the Mexican-American orquesta. While the conjunto was primarily working class music, the orquesta was the chosen style of a small but influential middle-class Mexican-American community. This music was associated with groups like the League of Latin American Citizens and the American G.I. Forum. While these were early civil rights organizations, their members also subscribed a particular type of social conservatism that stressed assimilation, capitalism, patriotism, and conservative gender roles. The Mexican-American middle-class in the mid-twentieth century was conservative in political, social, and cultural outlook. They would have thought the Pachuco Boogie-Woogie scandalous and the conjunto low class. Villa’s orchestration, his choice of American influenced rhythms, and his hiding, and in some cases eliminating, of the accordion shows the assimilationist bent of the Mexican-American orquesta.

  1. Pedro Infante – “Dicen Que Soy Mujeriego” (1948)

Infante was part of a larger shift in Mexican culture beginning after the institutionalization of the Mexican Revolution. After the subsidence of violence, the revolutionary state set out to create a new coherent Mexican nationalism, a project that had plagued the nation through the nineteenth century. Building on indigenous and socialist themes, the Mexican state believed they could create, as Jose Vasconcelos wrote, a “raza cosmica,” or a cosmic people. In other words, integration not racial segregation would be the foundation for the new nation in the twentieth century. The combination of the indigenous past and the industrial future would help forge a new nation. In an effort to create this new nationalism, the Mexican state began to promote Mariachi music domestically and internationally. Mariachi music had previously been a regional music but started to transform into a national symbol. Through film and radio the Mexican state popularized the music because its themes reflected key tenets of Mexican political and social identity: bravery, virility, chivalry, . Songs like “Dicen Que Soy Mujeriego” foreground men as central social and political actors. Their power was manifest in their sexual virility and their virtue in their chivalry. While in reality the charro was a mythical figure of the past, he was a national metonym, an example of what every Mexican man was supposed to be. These films and songs were promoted in the United States as well and were popular and influential.

  1. Carlos Santana – “Oye Como Va” (1970)

By the mid-1960s, some Mexican-American youth began calling themselves Chicanas and Chicanos. The term, with a history rooted in a working-class migratory history of the twentieth century, was used as an affirmation of identity and culture and as a term of resistance to assimilation. Chicanas and Chicanos saw themselves as a community that had unique transnational and indigenous qualities that would allow them to fight back capitalist penetration and colonial conquest. Building upon a long history of cultural syncretism, they believed that cultural mestizaje was a crucial ingredient to social resistance. Santana’s music adopts these themes. Santana combined American rock, Afro-Latino rhythms, and Mexican culture into a transnational ethnic Mexican music. For this generation, his music, along with others like El Chicano, was the soundtrack to the .

[You will write a concluding Paragraph]

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with CheapNursingWriter
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
The paper was EXCELLENT. Thank you
Customer 452449, September 23rd, 2022
Public Administration
Excellent timely work
Customer 452451, April 19th, 2023
English 101
Very good job. I actually got an A
Customer 452443, September 25th, 2022
excellent loved the services
Customer 452443, September 23rd, 2022
Thanks a lot the paper was excellent
Customer 452453, October 26th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you!
Customer 452451, November 27th, 2022
Architecture, Building and Planning
The assignment was well written and the paper was delivered on time. I really enjoyed your services.
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Business Studies
Job well done. Finish paper faster than expected. Thank you!
Customer 452451, October 3rd, 2022
Excellent services will definitely come back
Customer 452441, September 23rd, 2022
Job well done and completed in a timely fashioned!
Customer 452451, November 18th, 2022
Business Studies
Excellent service - thank you!
Customer 452469, February 20th, 2023
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat