Class: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology

Class: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology
Assignment: Short Answer Assessment
As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, before you can recommend potential pharmacotherapeutics to address a patient’s condition or disorder, you must understand the basic function and structure of the neuron and central nervous system. For this Assignment, you will review and apply your understanding of neuroanatomy by addressing a set of short answer prompts.
To Prepare:
1. Review the Learning Resources for this week in preparation to complete this Assignment.
2. Reflect on the basic function and structure of the neuron in relation to the central nervous system.
3. Reflect on the inter-connectedness between neurons and the central nervous system, including the pathway and distribution of electrical impulses.
4. Reflect on how neurons communicate with each other and review the concept of neuroplasticity.
To complete:
Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.
1. In 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
• What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
• Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
• What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
3. In 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
5. In 4–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Example
1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron, and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
A neuron is an essential component of the nervous system. Neurons consist of a nucleus, a cell body, and unique extensions called axons and dendrites (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Nervous tissue consists of neurons, which conduct electrical signals. Nerve impulses are electrical signals carried by these cells (Luman Learning, 2020). The synapse is a structure where each neuron communicates electrically and chemically with another (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016).
2.Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
a. What are the significant components of subcortical structures?
1. Diencephalon,
2. Pituitary gland,
3. Limbic structures- the limbic system consists of several parts: hippocampus, amygdala, septum, cingulate gyrus, and others
4. Basal ganglia.
(Emamian et al., 2021)
b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
A limbic system is in the brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus. The brain is most heavily implicated in emotion and memory (Camprodon &Roffman,2016). The limbic system regulates olfaction, memory, emotions, and body homeostasis. Concerning emotions, the main amygdala function is reacting to fear. Limbic system of the brain thought to be engaged in many behaviors such as pleasurable sensations, the powerful euphoria of drugs of abuse (Mclnemey, 2014).
c. What are the two critical neurotransmitters located in the nigra striated region of the brain that plays a significant role in motor control?
1 The dopaminergic neurons have axon terminals that connect to known spiny projection
neurons, which are in the striatum.
2 GABA are found throughout the brain, other neurotransmitter systems are localized to
specific neural pathways (Camprodon &Roffman,2016).
3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
Neurons receive nutrients from glia cells. Using the action of neurons, electrical impulses are generated. A positive charge is transmitted to the membrane of neuronal cells to produce this sensation. Nerve impulses are created by causing mechanical, chemical, or electrical disturbances in neuron membranes in response to sensory input. Nerve impulse transmission occurs through the axon, synapse, and neuromuscular junction. (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016).
4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons communicate with each other and how this communication occurs? Be specific.
The synaptic mechanism that determines whether neurons communicate using electrical or chemical signals. Furthermore, it propagates the action potential to the end of the axon and is sufficient to transmit it directly to the postsynaptic cell. Besides terminating at the end of the axon, it also releases chemicals that stimulate the postsynaptic cell (Camproden & Roffman, 2016).
5.In 3-5 sentences, explain the concept of neuroplasticity. Be specific and provide an example.
Neuroplasticity is also referred to as brain plasticity. The brain can alter and become accustomed out of involvement. Brains can change or redoing their connections. A brain without this function would not be able to develop from childhood through adulthood or recover from brain injury (Price& Duman 2020). Neuroplasticity is an important factor in neurorehabilitation, by which the brain can change the dysfunction caused by a lesion. Which the most common type of brain lesion leading to visual dysfunction is the ischemic brain lesion (Elena et al., 2021).

References
Camproden, J., & Roffman, J. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital, psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1-19). Elsevier.
Chapter 5 – Electrical Synapses. (2019). Synaptic Transmission, 65-91. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815320-8.00005-3
Elena, B. A., Ioana, S., Cristina, N., & Angelo, B. (2021). Neuroplasticity pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neuro-optometric rehabilitation in ischemic stroke – a brief review.Balneo Research Journal,12(1), 16-20. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.12680/balneo.2021.412
Farnoosh Emamian, Mostafa Mahdipour, Khadijeh Noori, Masoumeh Rostampour, S. Bentolhoda Mousavi, Habibolah Khazaie, Mohammadreza Khodaie-Ardakani, Masoud Tahmasian, & Mojtaba Zarei. (2021). Alterations of Subcortical Brain Structures in Paradoxical and Psychophysiological Insomnia Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.661286
Lumen Learning. Anatomy and Physiology. Lumen. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/nemccap/chapter/the-function-of-nervous-tissue/
Price, R. B., & Duman, R. (2020). Neuroplasticity in cognitive and psychological mechanisms of depression: An integrative model. Molecular Psychiatry, 25(3), 530-543. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0615-x
Mclnemey, S. (2014). Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications, 4th Edition. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(8), 455-456. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/070674371405900810 Russell A. Dewey, P. (2021). Subcortical Structures and Functions | in Chapter 02: Human Nervous System. Retrieved 1 June 2021, from https://www.psywww.com/intropsych/ch02-human-nervous-system/subcortical-structures.html

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