Case Study, Chapter 5, Adult Health and Nutritional Assessment

Case Study, Chapter 5, Adult Health and Nutritional Assessment 1. Mrs. Jones, a 40-year-old female patient, is presenting for a history and physical. The nurse gathers a family history from the patient. She shares that her mother died at 70 years of age of colon cancer and had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. She had a stroke before passing away. Her father died at 67 years of age from a stroke. He had a long history of alcoholism and smoked two packs per day of cigarettes for 50 years. He had hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and two heart attacks; the first heart attack was at 30 years of age and the second at 52 years of age. He had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents since 50 years of age. He had renal stenosis that was unsuccessfully treated with a renal angioplasty and he developed end-stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Mrs. Jones has two brothers. One brother developed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents at 50 years of age. The second brother has no health problems. The maternal grandmother died at 88 years of age of a stroke and had hypertension. The maternal grandfather died at 70 years of age of a massive heart attack and had a history of hypertension. The paternal grandmother died at 80 years of age of a. The paternal grandfather died at 50 years of age from bleeding esophageal varices related to long-standing alcoholism. The patient shares that her mother’s first cousin, George, died at 52 years of age of Hodgkin lymphoma. She has another first cousin Mabel, 72 years of age, who is alive but has had cancer of the colon and had a recent stroke, and has a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with diet. Her mother’s sister, who is 68 years of age, is alive and has a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Her mother’s brother died at 68 years of age of renal cancer and had a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents. He also had a heart attack at 45 years of age and a coronary artery bypass graft operation of three vessels at 55 years of age. He smoked cigarettes for 50 years. The patient’s father was an only child and her father’s family all lived to be over 80 years of age. a. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s first-order relatives have? b. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s second-order relatives have? c. Optional: Draw a genogram of the patient’s family’s health history using the example in the textbook (see Fig. 5-2) as a guide. 2. The registered nurse prepares to conduct a nutritional assessment on Mrs. Varner, a 52-yearold Caucasian female who describes herself as “overweight most of my adult life.” The client states that her health is good. She works part time as a receptionist and volunteers about 10 hours per week in her church. The nurse obtains Mrs. Varner’s height as 64 inches and her weight as 165 pounds. a. What is the rationale for computing body mass index? What is Mrs. Varner’s BMI? b. Calculate her ideal body weight. What is your assessment of her BMI and weight? c. Based on Mrs. Varner’s BMI and weight, the nurse measures her waist circumference. Describe the proper procedure for this assessment. d. Mrs. Varner’s waist circumference is 38 inches. What is your ? e. What laboratory values would the nurse review to evaluate Mrs. Varner’s protein levels? Case Study, Chapter 6, Individual and Family Homeostasis, Stress, and Adaptation 1. Mr. Smith, a 52-year old patient, is admitted to the coronary care unit with the diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient has a history of smoking two packs per day of cigarettes for 35 years, and he drinks a six-pack of beer on weekend nights, but does not drink the rest of the week. He is the sole financial support for his family. He is a consultant for a company and is out of town during week days. Over the past year, Mr. Smith has gained 20 pounds. He is 5 foot 6 inches, weighing 200 pounds. His diet consists mostly of fast food. He rarely exercises. His wife cares for their three teenage children. The eldest son, 17 years of age, totaled the family car when drinking and driving 2 days ago and he is in the local children’s hospital in the intensive care unit in critical condition. Mr. Smith developed chest pain and slumped over in his chair during an argument with his wife about their teenage daughter, who is 15 years of age and wanted to get birth control pills. The wife is in the waiting room while the nurses settle Mr. Smith into his room. The youngest son, 13 years of age, is at a friend’s house. The teenage daughter is staying at the bedside of the critically ill eldest son. The wife blames her eldest son for her husband’s heart attack and told the emergency department nurse that she does not care to see her son at all. a. What maladaptive responses to stress may have contributed to Mr. Smith’s development of an illness? b. Based on the case study, what family assessment data may be used to determine coping strategies being currently used by the family in crisis? c. What nursing interventions should be used to promote effective coping for the patient and his family? 2. Mary Turner stepped on a nail 5 days ago and sustained a puncture about 1 inch deep. She immediately cleaned the area with soap and water and hydrogen peroxide, and applied triple antibiotic ointment to the site. Today she comes to the clinic with complaints of increased pain and swelling in her foot. On assessment, the nurse notes that the puncture site is red and edematous, and has a moderate amount of yellowish drainage. a. Describe the sequence of events that caused the local inflammation seen in Mary’s foot. b. What is the role of histamine and kinins in the inflammatory process? c. Which of the five cardinal signs of inflammation does Mary exhibit? d. Because Mary’s injury occurred 5 days ago, the nurse should assess for what systemic effects? Case Study, Chapter 7, Overview of Transcultural Nursing 1. Mrs. Perez, 32 years of age, is a Hispanic patient who is admitted for early stage cancer of the uterus. The surgeon stated that in order to treat Mrs. Perez’s cancer successfully, the uterus will need to be removed surgically through a procedure called a simple hysterectomy leaving the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The surgeon requests that the nurse make arrangements for an interpreter, so they can both use the interpreter’s services. The patient only speaks Spanish, but her mother and one of the patient’s sisters are bilingual. They are currently visiting the patient. Her husband is also visiting and he only speaks Spanish. The patient’s two children are with her sister Maria. The family stated they are devout Catholics and request to see a priest while in the hospital. Today is Ash Wednesday. a. Which interpreter is the most appropriate choice to communicate with Mrs. Perez and why? b. After critically analyzing the cultural influences, what nursing actions are appropriate for the patient? 2. The nurse manager of an ambulatory care clinic has noted an increased number of visits by patients from different countries and cultures, including patients from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Concerned about meeting the needs of this culturally diverse population, the nurse manager convenes a staff meeting to discuss this change in patient demographics, and to query the staff about any learning needs they have related to the care of these patients. a. What strategy to avoid stereotyping clients from other cultures should the nurse include in this meeting? b. Identify culturally sensitive issues to be discussed in the staff meeting. c. One technician on the staff complains that some patients never make eye contact, and this makes it difficult for him to complete his work. How should the nurse respond? Case Study, Chapter 8, Overview of Genetics and Genomics in Nursing 1. A patient who is 38 years of age is diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary disease that results in fluid-filled cysts occupying space in the kidneys. The cysts can interfere with the function of the kidney and may burst and cause bleeding inside the kidney. The patient with polycystic kidney disease may or may not have a berry aneurysm of a blood vessel in the brain that could lead to bleeding and death, cysts on the ovaries, and a mitral valve prolapse (in females) that can lead to dysrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), or diverticula (outpouching of the bowel) that are susceptible to infection and inflammation and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient is susceptible to retaining fluid in the abdomen so the abdomen is large to constipation, and to hypertension. There is no cure for the disease. The patient receives supportive care for the various symptoms or complications the patient may have. a. When explaining to the patient and family about polycystic kidney disease, the nurse should explain what characteristics about an autosomal dominant genetic disease? b. How does variable expression of genetic characteristics play a role in the course of polycystic kidney disease and how can the nurse further predict the level of the disease? c. Identify the roles of the nurse in integrating genetics in the nursing care provided for the patient. 2. Mr. Wayne is a 38-year-old man with a significant family history of elevated cholesterol levels. His father died at age 42 from a massive heart attack secondary to elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, and two of his older siblings are currently taking medications to lower their cholesterol levels. Mr. Wayne makes an appointment to discuss his risk for hypercholesterolemia. The nurse recognizes that Mr. Wayne is at risk for familial hypercholesterolemia because this is an autosomal dominant inherited condition a. Describe the pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance. b. Mr. Wayne asks what chance his children have of developing familial hypercholesterolemia. How should the nurse respond. c. Explain the phenomenon of penetrance observed in autosomal dominant inheritance. Case Study, Chapter 9, Chronic Illness and Disability 1. Mr. Edwards is 20-year-old male patient who is admitted for treatment of recurring pyelonephritis (kidney infection) and surgical treatment of a urinary stricture, which has decreased the urinary stream. Mr. Edwards has paraplegia; he is paralyzed from the waist down secondary to an automobile accident when he was 16. He came by ambulance to the hospital, leaving his wheelchair and wheelchair pressure-relieving cushion at home. According to the , the patient is a nonsmoker and he does not drink alcohol or take any illegal drugs. a. What nursing considerations should be made for Mr. Edwards related to his disability? b. What health promotion and prevention education does Mr. Edwards need? 2. Ms. Fulton is a 38-year-old mother who was recently diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, a chronic disease of the neuromuscular system. Management of this disease process requires strict adherence to a medication regimen. The disease also affects ADLs for the patient and her family. Additionally, because myasthenia gravis is characterized by exacerbations that may require hospitalizations, Ms. Fulton has had to resign from her position as president of a marketing firm. She has remained as an employee of the same company, but now serves as a consultant with more flexible work hours. a. In discussing management of her chronic disease, the nurse focuses on what types of strategies? b. Describe supportive nursing care that may be helpful to Ms. Fulton. Case Study, Chapter 10, Principles and Practices of Rehabilitation 1. Mrs. Adams, 72 years of age, is admitted to the rehab unit with the diagnosis of stroke. The stroke affected the limbic area in the brain, which has caused the patient to have emotional labiality (her mood changes rapidly because she misinterprets situations). As a result of the emotional labiality, she sometimes refuses to be repositioned or to participate in physical or occupational therapy. She sometimes also refuses to eat and drink. The patient’s right side is paralyzed and flaccid. She has no feeling on her right side. She has reddened areas on her coccyx and both heels at least 1 cm in diameter that do not go away with repositioning. She is incontinent of urine and stool. She has problems with communication called global aphasia (difficulties understanding speech and the written word and difficulties with speaking and writing). She is 5 feet tall and weighs 178 pounds. She has a tendency to develop skin tears because her skin is thin, and she has several bandages on her arms. The family states they are concerned because the staff on the previous medical-surgical unit would drag their mother up in bed when she slid down. The staff would chart when their mother refused to be repositioned and then would not reposition her for hours. a. Explain the pathophysiology of the risk factors that predispose Mrs. Adams to developing pressure ulcers? b. What nursing measures need to be instituted for Mrs. Adams based on the information presented in the case study? 2. You are assigned to care for David Ramsey, a 22-year-old male patient who sustained a back injury secondary to being thrown from a motorcycle. He did not damage the spinal cord, but the computed tomography revealed a compression fracture at L-2 (lumbar area). David complains of severe lower back pain with numbness and tingling in the lower extremities. You identify the following nursing diagnosis: Impaired Physical Mobility. a. What are indicated based on this nursing diagnosis? b. List other major nursing diagnoses based on David’s clinical presentation. …

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