Biol 313/314 Spring 2016 – What germ layer are neural crest cells derived from

Biol 313/314

Spring 2016

Exam 3 Study Guide

Neural Crest

What germ layer are neural crest cells derived from? What are some
tissues derived from Neural crest cells? Be familiar with characteristics of
neural crest cells.

Be familiar with how neural crest cells are able
to give rise to different cell types (eg they are mulitpotent, the migrate to
new positions)

EMT and neural crest cells

How do we determine what cell/tissues are derived
from neural crest cells experimentally? Be generally familiar with neural crest
cells with respect to pigmentation and craniofacial development.

Paraxial Mesoderm (main focus is on somites)
What tissues are derived from Paraxial Mesoderm?
What gene class controls patterning of the
somites along the A-P axis? What are the characteristics of somites?
Be familiar with some tissues derived from
somites and how somites are patterned.

Be familiar with the processes of endochondrial
ossification- what types of bones develop this way?

Be familiar with development of the vertebrae.

Intermediate Mesoderm (urogenital system, main focus is on Kidney)
Be familiar with progression of kidney
development, what stages are transient and where does the adult kidney come

Be familiar with specification of the kidney and
the experiments that demonstrated this. Be familiar with the reciprocal
inductive interactions during kidney development and the basic steps of kidney
development- you do not need to memorize the specific molecules involved.

Lateral Plate Mesoderm
What are some tissues derived from the lateral plate mesoderm?

Be familiar with heart development: heart tube,
looping and formation of the chambers are the main topics.
The Endoderm
What are some tissues that are derived from
endoderm? The main focus is on the digestive system

How is the digestive tube patterned along the A-P axis, generally?

Know that the different organs that form from the digestive tube and
the pattern of the digestive tube is also due to interactions between the
endoderm and lateral plate mesoderm

Know that the lungs form by branching off of the digestive tube.

Limb Development

How are forelimbs distinguished from hindlimbs?

Biol 313/314

Spring 2016

Know generally how limb buds are induced (you don’t have to memorize
the specific molecules, but you should understand conceptually how different
molecules function in this process)
What is the AER? What axis is it important for
Understand the role of the AER and the limb
mesenchyme in P-D axis patterning and the experiments used to discover these
roles. What is the progress zone?

What is the ZPA and how does it pattern the A-P
axis of the limb? Understand experiments that demonstrated the function of the
ZPA and Shh in limb patterning.

How does Shh pattern the limb?

What role does apoptosis play in limb
development? How is this different in different species?
How do limbs continue to grow after they are

How do limbs stop growing when the animal reaches
its adult size? Be familiar with disease that result from misregulation of bone

You sould know the role of FGF signaling by the
AER and the role of SHH signaling by the ZPA.

Understand how the Retinoic Acid and FGF gradients pattern the P-D
limb axis.

How do Hox genes pattern the P-D axis of the
limb? What happens to a limb if you delete one of the Hox genes?

Post embryonic development: Metamorphosis and
Regeneration (aging will not be on the final)

What are the 4 ways that regeneration occurs,
know an example of each How do planarians reproduce?

What are neoblasts and what is their role in
regeneration? What experiments demonstrated that regenerated tissues come from

What is the wound epithelium? What is the
blastema? Understand the role of BMP (TGFb) in Dorsal Ventral polarity.

What is the role of Wnt and b-catenin in
planarian regeneration? How can you get an animal that regenerates two heads?

How do salamanders regenerate their limbs?
Understand the 3 basic requirements for limb
What is the wound epithelium, blastema, and AEC?
What are their roles in limb regeneration?

Understand experiments that lead to the
understanding of lineage restriction of blastema cells in amphibians.
How do hydras regenerate?

How was the head activator defined experimentally?
What tissue can act as an organizer in hydra?

How is budding
restricted to the center of the body in hydra? What is the role of wnt and b
-catenin in hydra regeneration? How does the mammalian liver regenerate?
Know what direct development and indirect
development are and know examples of animals that undergo each of these types
of development.

Biol 313/314

Spring 2016

Know the difference between primary and secondary
larva and know some examples. Know some examples of structures that change
during amphibian metamorphosis.

How is metamorphosis triggered in amphibians? In
what ways do tissues respond? Know some of the examples discussed.

Is the response of tissues to thyroid hormones location or tissue
specific in amphibians? What are the three different ways that insects undergo
metamorphosis (you wont need to recall these terms, but be able to recognize
them if you see them).

Generally, how does drosophila undergo metamorphosis?

What are imaginal cells? How do they function in metamorphosis?

Understand patterning of the wing imaginal disc.
You should understand the role of hh, engrailed, dpp in A-P patterning.

Remember that metamorphosis is hormonally
controlled in insects and how larval molts and the pupal molt differ.


Understand the concept of aging as a part of an
organisms developmental program. Know the role of DNA repair, p53, telomeres,
Insulin signaling and misregulation of DNA methylation in aging.

Sex Determination

What are some of the different mechanisms that
animals use to determine sex? Mammalian Sex determination: Be familiar with
chromosomal sex determination in mammals, primary sex determination, secondary
sex determination, the role of SRY. Where does the gonad develop from? (what
germ layer?)

You don’t need to memorize all the different cell and tissue types of
the male and female gonad. Understand that the ovary and testis develop from a
biopotential gonad and that sex determination directs whether the gonad
develops as an ovary or testis

Understand how SRY
controls sex determination. Know SRY, Sox9, Wnt4, and B-catenin. Secondary sex
determination: general concepts. Know the hormones that are involved. Know some
structures that are affected by secondary sex determination (especially the
gonadal ducts)

Sex Determination in Drosophila: how does XY
chromosomal sex determination in drosophila differ from mammalian XY
chromosomal sex determination?

Know that there are genes on the X that regulate
Sxl in a dose-dependant way. Know Sxl and Dsx and how they control male vs
female fate.

What is a
gynandomorph (generally)? What does it tell you about how sex is determined?
Sex Determination in Birds: How is chromosomal sex determination
similar/different to chromosomal sex determination in mammals and drosophila?

How does DMRT1 control sex determination in
birds, what gene is it related to? Environmental Sex Determination: What are
some environmental factors that determine sex?

*Experimental data should be understood conceptually.

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