DISCUSSION #1.Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. For this discussion, complete the following:
Describe the differences between top-down and bottom-up theories of perception.
Test your perceptual patterns to determine whether you think synesthesia is based more on low-level or higher level cognitive processes, then discuss. You will need the resources on synesthesia for this part of the discussion.
Name at least one famous person who is reported to have synesthesia and describe the type of synesthesia he or she experiences.
DISCUSSION #2.Attitudes help guide behavior, although sometimes people act in ways that contradict their attitudes (Baumeister & Bushman, 2014). Some have said that attitudes are directly related to behavior; others say there is no strong relationship between attitude and behavior.
Explain what is meant by attitude. How do people develop attitudes? Support your explanation with theory.
Describe the relationship between behavior and attitude. Apply one theory to support your position, and provide at least one example to illustrate your understanding of the relationship or lack of relationship between behavior and attitude.
DISCUSSSION #3.This activity for this discussion should be conducted over several days to assess both the level of use and the discomfort associated with caffeine or nicotine withdrawal. You should use one or both of these topics only, do not share other addictive substances or personal addictive issues. Through this exercise, you will gain an appreciation for how addiction happens, why it may go unnoticed, and how withdrawal can be a difficult process both physically and mentally. If you are not a smoker and do not drink coffee (even though you used to), you will need to interview someone who currently does smoke or drink caffeine.
Task: Two of the most popular legal drugs of abuse are caffeine and nicotine. Many people use one, or both, of these drugs. To complete this discussion:
Quantify intake using the charts provided on the Web sites related to caffeine and nicotine, located in Resources.
Track your (or your subject’s) caffeine or nicotine use over three days.
Refrain from using the drug for 48 hours.
Document any withdrawal symptoms you (or your partner) may experience. Also, keep a record of any drugs you use to combat withdrawal symptoms, and note its active ingredients. If a relapse occurs, document that as well. Use the following questions as a guide to record your results:
o When are the drugs used? Is there any difference in the social situations surrounding each use?
o What withdrawal symptoms did you (or your subject) experience for each drug respectively?
o How have these symptoms made you or your subject feel about the use of these drugs?
o Did you or your subject have social support during the 48 hours abstinence from the drug? Did that help prevent relapses?
o Did you or your subject take other drugs to relieve some of the symptoms (such as aspirin for headaches)? Did it help keep you from relapsing? Did these drugs contain caffeine?
Based upon your results (and it is optional to share your results with peers), post your discussion to the following question:
· Would you or your subject still seek these drugs if they were made illegal? Why or why not? Using the Neurotransmitters Matching presentation from Unit 2, can you trace the neural pathways involved in the addiction cycle? In withdrawal?