Describe the differences in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in public health. Provide one example for each level of public health prevention. For each example provided, explain the relationship between the example provided and the level of prevention. Also discuss the benefits and the potential consequences at each level.
Support your statements with scholarly references and appropriate examples.
Another pair of identical twins, Daphne and Barbara, were called the “giggle sisters”
by researchers because after being reunited they were always making each other laugh.
A thorough search of their adoptive families’ histories revealed no gigglers. The giggle Page
36 sisters ignored stress, avoided conflict and controversy whenever possible, and showed
no interest in politics.
Jim and Jim and the giggle sisters were part of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart,
directed by Thomas Bouchard and his colleagues. The study brings identical twins (who are
identical genetically because they come from the same fertilized egg) and fraternal twins (who
come from different fertilized eggs) from all over the world to Minneapolis to investigate their
lives. There the twins complete personality and intelligence tests, and provide detailed medical
histories, including information about diet and smoking, exercise habits, chest X-rays, heart
stress tests, and EEGs. The twins are asked more than 15,000 questions about their family and
childhood, personal interests, vocational orientation, values, and aesthetic judgments (Bouchard
& others, 1990).
When genetically identical twins who were separated as infants show such striking similarities in
their tastes and habits and choices, can we conclude that their genes must have caused these
similarities? Although genes play a role, we also need to consider other possible causes. The
twins shared not only the same genes but also some similar experiences. Some of the separated
twins lived together for several months prior to their adoption; some had been reunited prior to
testing (in some cases, many years earlier); adoption agencies often place twins in similar homes;
and even strangers who spend several hours together and start comparing their lives are likely to
come up with some coincidental similarities (Joseph, 2006).