General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2011 Sociology Unit 1 Wednesday 18 May 2011 For this paper you must have: ? an AQA 8-page answer book. SCLY1 9. 00 am to 10. 00 am Time allowed ? 1 hour Instructions ? Use black ink or black ball-point pen. ? Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Examining Body for this paper is AQA. The Paper Reference is SCLY1. ? This paper is divided into three sections. ? Choose one section and answer all of the questions from that section. Do not answer questions from more than one section. ? Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information ? The marks for questions are shown in brackets. ? The maximum mark for this paper is 60. ? Questions carrying 24 marks should be answered in continuous prose. In these questions you will be marked on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. G/T64897/Jun11/SCLY1 6/6/ SCLY1 2 Choose one section and answer all of the questions from that section.
Section A: Culture and Identity Total for this section: 60 marks Read Items 1A and 1B below and answer questions Item 1A Interactionists see a person’s identity as arising from interactions with other people and from how those interactions are interpreted. For example, social expectations about what is an appropriate leisure activity for an older person may influence what that person does in their spare time. This choice of leisure activity may affect how they see themselves and how others see them, both of which contribute to their sense of identity.
Item 1B For Marxists, culture in society reflects ruling-class ideology. It expresses the distorted view of the world put forward by the dominant class and is important in maintaining the system of social inequality that exists in capitalist society. Functionalist sociologists argue that the culture of society reflects the shared values of that society. Society needs a shared culture to run effectively, and various agencies play their part in socialising members of society. 0 0 1 2 Explain what is meant by ‘socialisation’. 5 0 1 to 0 5 that follow. (2 marks) Suggest two reasons, apart from the one mentioned in Item 1A, why leisure choices may vary across different age groups. (4 marks) Identify three characteristics and/or concepts associated with interactionist views of culture and identity, apart from those mentioned in Item 1A. (6 marks) Examine sociological explanations of the ways in which ethnicity may shape social identity. (24 marks) Using material from Item 1B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the role of culture in society. (24 marks) 0 3 0 4 0 5
G/T64897/Jun11/SCLY1 3 Section B: Families and Households Total for this section: 60 marks Read Items 2A and 2B below and answer questions Item 2A Many people see childhood as a natural stage of life that is determined by biology. What is expected of children is shaped by their age. However, sociologists suggest that childhood is a social construction. For example, changes in the laws regarding compulsory education and access to the labour market have shaped the experiences of children today. Item 2B Feminists take a critical view of the family.
They argue that family life maintains and promotes gender inequality. For example, this is reflected in the domestic division of labour. Housework and childcare in the family, which are carried out mainly by women, are unpaid and hardly recognised as work at all. However, some sociologists suggest that feminist theories ignore the extent of family diversity. In fact, family roles and relationships are varied and therefore women’s experiences of family life are more diverse than some feminists suggest. 0 0 6 7 Explain what is meant by the ‘social construction’ of childhood (Item 2A). 0 6 to 1 0 that follow. 5 (2 marks) Suggest two ways, apart from those mentioned in Item 2A, in which government policies and/or laws may shape the experiences of children today. (4 marks) Identify three reasons why the birth rate has fallen since 1900. Examine the reasons for changes in the divorce rate since 1969. (6 marks) (24 marks) 0 0 1 8 9 0 Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the contribution of feminist sociologists to an understanding of family roles and relationships. (24 marks) Turn over for Section C Turn over ?
G/T64897/Jun11/SCLY1 4 Section C: Wealth, Poverty and Welfare Total for this section: 60 marks Read Items 3A and 3B below and answer questions Item 3A In the United Kingdom, there is a mixed economy of welfare provision. This means that a range of different individuals and organisations provides welfare. The state benefits system is part of this provision and includes some benefits that are universal and others that are means-tested or selective. Voluntary groups also provide welfare services alongside the state and other providers.
Item 3B Some sociologists suggest that the attitudes and behaviour of the poor themselves are a significant factor in the existence and continuation of poverty. The poor have a distinct subculture that is different from the rest of society. This subculture encourages certain attitudes and behaviour that keep the poor locked in poverty. However, other sociologists question the existence of a set of different norms and values among the poor. Instead, they suggest that poverty arises from the structure and organisation of society. 1 1 1 2 Explain the difference between income and wealth. 1 1 to 1 5 that follow. 5 (4 marks) Suggest two advantages of welfare benefits being universal, rather than selective (Item 3A). (4 marks) Suggest two advantages of welfare provision by voluntary groups (Item 3A). (4 marks) 1 1 3 4 Examine the reasons for the increasing inequality of wealth in the United Kingdom since the 1970s. (24 marks) Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the view that the attitudes and the behaviour of the poor themselves are responsible for poverty. (24 marks) 1 5 END OF QUESTIONS Copyright © 2011 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. G/T64897/Jun11/SCLY1